Animated bubbles upwards continuously with pure CSS

Here is a pure CSS experimental work to create floating bubbles without using JavaScript. These animated bubbles are also with popping effect. All these animation is created by Pure CSS.

For our little demo, we use a simple image for the conical flask and then create the bubbles entirely with markup and CSS. read more @…

Animated bubbles upwards continuously with pure CSS


<div id="beaker">
  <span class="bubble">
    <span class="glow"> </span>

With our bubbles all made, now we need them to act like bubbles. We could use JavaScript but that’s no fun. Just use CSS! read more @…read-more-button

Animated Color wheel spinning with CSS3 Keyframes animation, Transform and Transition

I have done some experimental work to create CSS3 Animation without using JavaScript. I end up creating some animations using CSS3 Keyframes and Transform and like to share. I have done this animation using border-color tricks and CSS Transform: i.e. CSS scale and CSS3 rotation.

Note: Before going I like to make something clear, Internet Explorer 10, Firefox, and Opera supports the @keyframes rule and animation property. Chrome and Safari requires the prefix -webkit- in css.

Important: Internet Explorer 9, and earlier versions, does not support the @keyframe rule or animation property.



<div id="colorWheel">
    <span class="color01"></span>
    <span class="color02"></span>
    <span class="color03"></span>
    <span class="color04"></span>
    <span class="color05"></span>
    <span class="color06"></span>
    <span class="color07"></span>
    <span class="color08"></span>
    <span class="color09"></span>
    <span class="color10"></span>


Now, We will use some CSS Technique using border-color tricks and CSS3 rotation. I have created this color cycle without using any image.  I have done a cool rotating wheel animation  using @keyframes animation.

#colorWheel {
    height: 100px;
    width: 100px;
    margin: 40px auto ;
    position: absolute; left:10%;
    -webkit-transform-origin: 50px 150px;
    -moz-transform-origin: 50px 150px;
    -ms-transform-origin: 50px 150px;
    -o-transform-origin: 50px 150px;
    transform-origin: 50px 150px;
    -webkit-transition: all 0.5s linear;
    -moz-transition: all 0.5s linear;
    -ms-transition: all 0.5s linear;
    -o-transition: all 0.5s linear;
    transition: all 0.5s linear;
    animation: wheel 10s ease-in-out infinite alternate;
    -moz-animation: wheel 10s ease-in-out infinite alternate;
    -webkit-animation: wheel 10s ease-in-out infinite alternate;
    -ms-animation: wheel 10s ease-in-out infinite alternate;

@keyframes wheel{
    transform:scale(.6) rotate(0deg);
    left: 90%;
    transform:scale(1) rotate(2160deg);
@-webkit-keyframes wheel{
    -webkit-transform:scale(.6) rotate(0deg);
    left: 90%;
    -webkit-transform:scale(1) rotate(2160deg);
@-moz-keyframes wheel{
    -moz-transform:scale(.6) rotate(0deg);
    left: 90%;
    -moz-transform:scale(1) rotate(2160deg);
@-ms-keyframes wheel{
    -ms-transform:scale(.6) rotate(0deg);
    left: 90%;
    -ms-transform:scale(1) rotate(2160deg);

#colorWheel:hover {}
#colorWheel span {
    position: absolute;
    -webkit-transform-origin: 50% 50%;
    border-style: solid;
    border-width: 150px 50px;
    box-sizing: border-box;
#colorWheel span.color01 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(0deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(0deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(0deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(0deg);
    transform: rotate(0deg);
    border-color: #43a1cd transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color02 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(36deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(36deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(36deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(36deg);
    transform: rotate(36deg);
    border-color: #639b47 transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color03 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(72deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(72deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(72deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(72deg);
    transform: rotate(72deg);
    border-color: #9ac147 transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color04 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(108deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(108deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(108deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(108deg);
    transform: rotate(108deg);
    border-color: #e1e23b transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color05 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(144deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(144deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(144deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(144deg);
    transform: rotate(144deg);
    border-color: #f7941e transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color06 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(180deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(180deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(180deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(180deg);
    transform: rotate(180deg);
    border-color: #ba3e2e transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color07 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(216deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(216deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(216deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(216deg);
    transform: rotate(216deg);
    border-color: #9a1d34 transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color08 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(252deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(252deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(252deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(252deg);
    transform: rotate(252deg);
    border-color: #662a6c transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color09 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(288deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(288deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(288deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(288deg);
    transform: rotate(288deg);
    border-color: #272b66 transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel span.color10 {
    -webkit-transform: rotate(324deg);
    -moz-transform: rotate(324deg);
    -ms-transform: rotate(324deg);
    -o-transform: rotate(324deg);
    transform: rotate(324deg);
    border-color: #2d559f transparent transparent transparent;
#colorWheel:before {
    content: "";
    width: 300px;
    height: 300px;
    overflow: hidden;
    position: absolute;
    top: -30px;
    left: -130px;
    border-radius: 100%;
    border: 30px solid #ffffff;
    z-index: 100;
    box-shadow:0px 0px 2px 12px rgba(180,180,180,.5)
#colorWheel:after {
    content: "";
    width: 100px;
    height: 100px;
    overflow: hidden;
    position: absolute;
    top: 100px;
    left: 0px;
    border-radius: 100%;
    box-shadow:0px 0px 2px 12px rgba(250,250,250,.5);
    background: #444 url(Dhiraj.png); background-size:contain

view demo

Your turn

I had already posted some articles of css3 @keyframes animation examples.  Please check some of these beautiful animation with demo below:

I hope you enjoyed this article and the techniques I used. Please share your comments and questions below!

Posted by: Dhiraj kumar

Snow-Fall Effect with JavaScript – Creating Merry Christmas Greetings

On the occasion of Christmas and winter Holidays, I thought to wish this festival by create a nice webpage greetings. So, today I had created this Christmas greeting card using snow-fall effect with help of CSS3 and JavaScript. I hope you all will enjoy this holiday and my web-card too :).

Today we will create a Christmas greeting card using CSS3 and jQuery. There are many things we can do with CSS3 and javascript. We’ll use snowfall.dg.js for creating these snow.


Features and Principle

Note: Snowfall Plugin is Less than 12Kb in size. There are many options for customize and use this plugin as per your requirement. Some features are:

  • No need to add any image for snow.
  • No need to add any JavaScript library.
  • You can use any html element in place of snow.
  • Change the Color of Snow by using hexadecimal value.
  • Also support in iPhone, iPad and Mobile devices.
  • Snow-fall movement with mouse/cursor.
  • Stick on bottom.
  • Snow melt effect.
  • Twinkle effect – you can use this also if you want star-fall 🙂
  • More options..

What this script does is adds snow-fall to the body. You can find more options in snowfall.dg.js.


No special css required for snow fall effect. But in this greeting card, I have used css for background and my greeting message.

         background:#badaf3 url(merry_chirstmas-wide.jpg) 100% 0 no-repeat; 
         font-family: 'IM Fell Double Pica', georgia, serif;
         -ms-filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Alpha(Opacity=70)";
         box-shadow:4px 4px 10px 0 rgba(20,20,20,.6); 
         text-shadow: 2px 2px 3px #fff; 

The Html

<div id="welcome">May the miracle of Christmas fill your heart with 
warmth & love. 
Christmas is the time of giving and sharing.
It is the time of loving and forgiving. 
Hope you and your family have
wonderful Holiday... &... Merry Christmas to Everyone! </div>

Snowfall – The javascript

We have to add this snowfall.dg.js in body. I always prefer to use JavaScript files before close of body tag.

<script type="text/javascript" src="snowfall.dg.js"><script>

view demo


I have updated this greetings with Jingle bells music and Html5 audio tags. now our Html is

<div id="welcome">May the miracle of Christmas fill your heart with 
warmth & love. 
Christmas is the time of giving and sharing.
It is the time of loving and forgiving. 
Hope you and your family have
wonderful Holiday... &... Merry Christmas to Everyone! </div>
 <audio autoplay="true" loop="true">
   <source src="jingle_bells_merry.ogg" type="audio/ogg">
   <source src="jingle_bells_merry.mp3" type="audio/mpeg">
Your browser does not support the audio element (HTML5). Please update your Browser.

Merry Christmas

I hope you like the result and don’t hesitate to share your thoughts about it. Thanks for reading!

Posted by: Dhiraj kumar

Hover and Click Trigger For CIRCULAR Elements With jQuery

Today we want to share one possible solution to the circle hovering problem. We’ll create a plugin that will take care of the ‘mouseenter’, ‘mouseleave’ and ‘click’ events to be triggered only on the circular shape of the element and not its bounding box.

Applying a :hover pseudo-class to an element is widely known as the classic “hovering” over an element on a web page. A problem that arose with the introduction of the border-radius property is the non-realistic triggering of the hover event when entering the bounding box of the element and not just the actual visible area. This becomes extreme when we create a circle by setting the border-radius of a square to 50% (half of its outer width and height).

Today we want to share one possible solution to the circle hovering problem. We’ll create a plugin that will take care of the ‘mouseenter’, ‘mouseleave’ and ‘click’ events to be triggered only on the circular shape of the element and not its bounding box.



In our example, we’ll be creating a circle with some kind of hover effect. The structure will simply be:

<a href="#" id="circle" class="ec-circle">

And the style will be the following:

    width: 420px;
    height: 420px;
    -webkit-border-radius: 210px;
    -moz-border-radius: 210px;
    border-radius: 50%;
    text-align: center;
    overflow: hidden;
    font-family:'Kelly Slab', Georgia, serif;
    background: #dda994 url(HoverClickTriggerCircle.jpg) no-repeat center center;
        inset 0 0 1px 230px rgba(0,0,0,0.6),
        inset 0 0 0 7px #d5ad94;
    transition: box-shadow 400ms ease-in-out;
    display: block;
    outline: none;

Now, we will define a class for the hover effect but not a dynamic pseudo-class :hover. The idea is to apply this class then with jQuery when we enter the circular area of our element:

        inset 0 0 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.6),
        inset 0 0 0 20px #c18167,
        0 0 10px rgba(0,0,0,0.3);

Only when we have JavaScript disabled, we’ll add the pseudo-class. This style can be found in the noscript.css:

        inset 0 0 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.6),
        inset 0 0 0 20px #c18167,
        0 0 10px rgba(0,0,0,0.3);


We are going to create a simple plugin that basically “redefines” the three events mentioned earlier. We’ll make the events only applicable on the circular shape:

$.CircleEventManager            = function( options, element ) {
    this.$el = $( element );
    this._init( options );

$.CircleEventManager.defaults   = {
    onMouseEnter    : function() { return false },
    onMouseLeave    : function() { return false },
    onClick         : function() { return false }

$.CircleEventManager.prototype  = {
    _init           : function( options ) {
        this.options = $.extend( true, {}, $.CircleEventManager.defaults, options );
        // set the default cursor on the element
        this.$el.css( 'cursor', 'default' );

    _initEvents     : function() {
       var _self   = this;
           'mouseenter.circlemouse'    : function( event ) {
               var el  = $(,
               circleWidth   = el.outerWidth( true ),
               circleHeight  = el.outerHeight( true ),
               circleLeft    = el.offset().left,
               circleTop     = el.offset().top,
               circlePos     = {
                       x     : circleLeft + circleWidth / 2,
                       y     : circleTop + circleHeight / 2,
                       radius: circleWidth / 2

                // save cursor type
                var cursor  = 'default';
                if( _self.$el.css('cursor') === 'pointer' || _self.$'a') )
                    cursor = 'pointer';
       'cursor', cursor );
                el.on( 'mousemove.circlemouse', function( event ) {
                var distance    = Math.sqrt( Math.pow( event.pageX - circlePos.x, 2 ) + Math.pow( event.pageY - circlePos.y, 2 ) );

                if( !Modernizr.borderradius ) {

                  // inside element / circle
                  el.css( 'cursor','cursor') ).data( 'inside', true );
                  _self.options.onMouseEnter( _self.$el );

                 else {

                   if( distance <= circlePos.radius && !'inside') ) {                       // inside element / circle                       el.css( 'cursor','cursor') ).data( 'inside', true );                       _self.options.onMouseEnter( _self.$el );                                                   }                     else if( distance > circlePos.radius &&'inside') ) {

                      // inside element / outside circle
                      el.css( 'cursor', 'default' ).data( 'inside', false );
                      _self.options.onMouseLeave( _self.$el );
            'mouseleave.circlemouse'    : function( event ) {
              var el  = $(;
               if( 'inside' ) ) {
         'inside', false );
                  _self.options.onMouseLeave( _self.$el );
            'click.circlemouse'         : function( event ) {
              // allow the click only when inside the circle
                var el  = $(;
                if( ! 'inside' ) )
                    return false;
                    _self.options.onClick( _self.$el );
    destroy             : function() {     

When we enter with the mouse in the square bounding box of our circle, we bind the ‘mousemove’ event to the element and like that we can track if the distance of the mouse to the center of the element if longer than the radius. If it is, we know that we are not yet hovering the circular area of the element.

Once the distance of the mouse is shorter than the radius, we know that we entered the circle and we trigger our custom ‘mouseenter’ event.
We also only allow the click event when the mouse is inside of the circle.
In our example we will then apply our plugin to the regarding element. In our case, we are adding the hover class on ‘mouseenter’ and removing it on ‘mouseleave’.

    onMouseEnter    : function( el ) {


    onMouseLeave    : function( el ) {


    onClick         : function( el ) {



Remember that the “normal” pseudo hover class is also defined in the noscript.css which gets applied when JavaScript is disabled.

view demo

Your turn

I hope you enjoyed this article and the techniques I used. Please share your comments and questions below!

Posted by: Dhiraj kumar

Creating CSS Starbursts Design with CSS3 Transform

Working with the new CSS3 rotation property I got that I could create image free starbursts. All I needed was a series of nested block-level elements each rotated by a slightly different amount. The rotation would distribute the box corners around the circumference of the star.

About these CSS3 Starbursts:

A good thing is if you create your starbursts with CSS3 you can do so much more than with images. You can experiment with different numbers of points/corners, rounded borders, resize, text-shadows and animations also.

To see the animations you will need to use latest browsers like IE 9+, Firefox 4.0+, Safari 4.1+ and Chrome 3.0+.


No CSS Hacks

There are no CSS hacks required for these CSS3 starbursts. CSS is designed to be backwards compatible so any browser that cannot understand CSS3 will simply ignore these new rules without any error.

iPhone, iPod Touch, & iPad Compatible

The Safari browser is one of the most advanced when it comes to CSS3 because it uses the powerful Webkit rendering engine. This means all these animated starbursts will work fine on the iPhone, iPod Touch and the iPad.

SEO Friendly

Because the text in each starburst is actually real text it will be crawled and indexed by Google like everything else. It also means that people who are vision impaired can more easily read and understand your web page if they are using a screen reader.

No Images Required

All of the shapes, colours and shadows in the starbursts above are created using CSS3 rules. No images are used at all.

No JavaScript Required

The animations in these demos are made possible with the CSS3 transition rules. No JavaScript is used to create any effects.

Resizable Text Compatible

All the dimensions of the starbursts are set in em measurements. This means that you can increase the text size in your browser and the starburst will grow in size along with all other text. This is great news for web accessibility.

view demo


<div class="price-container">
  <div class="price">
    <span class="label">Buy</span>
    <span class="number">$99.95</span>
    <span class="label">Now</span>

I have <div> that, you guessed it, contains the price starburst. I’ll use this for the background of the starburst. The <div> is the container for the text inside (the price info.) That’s it for the markup. From here, I’ll be styling pseudo classes to create the multiple points. Also, I mentioned earlier that there were a few less points in the CSS version of this starburst. This markup doesn’t really have anything unnecessary in it.


Now on to the fun part. Let me overview what I’m going to do, then I’ll show you the styles needed to achieve it. I’m going to style .price-container.price, and the :before and:after pseudo elements for each. Essentially, I’ve got six elements to work with. I created this background image to apply to each of the elements and I will rotate 15 degrees each:

image used for starburst

The CSS is a little bit longer. I’ve used the rotation rules in the CSS, one is for Firefox (prefixed with -moz-), one is for webkit i.e. Safari and Chrome (prefixed with -webkit-), one is for Internet Explorer (prefixed with -ms-), one is for Opera (prefixed with -o-), and the other is the standard rotation rule as it will be used once this rotation property becomes standard:

.price-container .price,
.price-container .price:before,
.price-container .price:after {
	height: 8.5em;
	width: 8.5em;
	background: #760B1F url(price-bg.png) top left no-repeat;
	background-size: 8.5em;

.price-container .price:before,
.price-container .price:after {
	content: "";
	position: absolute;

.price-container {
	margin: 100px auto; /* Centering for demo */
	position: relative; /* Context */
	top: 2.5em;
	left: 2.5em;
	-webkit-transform: rotate(-45deg);
	  -moz-transform: rotate(-45deg);
	   -ms-transform: rotate(-45deg);
	    -o-transform: rotate(-45deg);
	       transform: rotate(-45deg);

.price-container:before {
	top: 0;
	left: 0;
	-webkit-transform: rotate(-30deg);
	  -moz-transform: rotate(-30deg);
	   -ms-transform: rotate(-30deg);
	    -o-transform: rotate(-30deg);
	       transform: rotate(-30deg);

.price-container:after {
	top: 0;
	left: 0;
	-webkit-transform: rotate(-15deg);
	  -moz-transform: rotate(-15deg);
	   -ms-transform: rotate(-15deg);
	    -o-transform: rotate(-15deg);
	       transform: rotate(-15deg);

.price-container .price {
	padding: .5em 0em;
	height: 7.5em; /* height minus padding */
	position: absolute;
	bottom: 0;
	right: 0;
	-webkit-transform: rotate(45deg);
	  -moz-transform: rotate(45deg);
	   -ms-transform: rotate(45deg);
	    -o-transform: rotate(45deg);
	       transform: rotate(45deg);
	z-index: 1; /* important so the text shows up */

.price-container .price:before {
	top: 0;
	left: 0;
	-webkit-transform: rotate(60deg);
	  -moz-transform: rotate(60deg);
	   -ms-transform: rotate(60deg);
	    -o-transform: rotate(60deg);
	       transform: rotate(60deg);

.price-container .price:after {
	top: 0;
	left: 0;
	-webkit-transform: rotate(75deg);
	  -moz-transform: rotate(75deg);
	   -ms-transform: rotate(75deg);
	    -o-transform: rotate(75deg);
	       transform: rotate(75deg);

A few things I’ll point out about the styles:

  • Notice the order of the rotation angles: This order is important because there is going to be text inside the inner-most element. Therefore, the last element (the one the text going in, in this case .price) has to be straight. Notice that .price-container is rotated -45 degrees and .price is rotated 45 degrees – back to 0.
  • The height and width: The height and width has to be set since we are dealing with background images here. I’ve set it in ems to adjust appropriately when the text size increases.
  • There’s a padding top and bottom on .price-container .price. That’s why the height is a little different than all the others.
  • Everything is positioned absolutely inside the first container. .price-container hasleft: 2.5em and top: 2.5em just to move the whole thing a little. When everything is rotated, the corners go of the page and out of the container a little.
  • z-index: There’s a z-index defined for .price-container .price. This is so the price information inside this div is visible.

Now all that’s left is styling the text.

.price-container .price span {
        position: relative;
	z-index: 100;
	display: block;
	text-align: center;
	color: #FE0;
	font: 1.8em/1.4em 'georgia',Sans-Serif;
	text-transform: uppercase;

.price-container .price span.number {
  font-weight: bold;
  font-size: 2.5em;
  line-height: .9em;
  color: #fff;

Some more CSS used in hover effect: {
	-webkit-transform: rotate(-20deg);
	-moz-transform: rotate(-20deg);
	-ms-transform: rotate(-20deg);
	-o-transform: rotate(-20deg);
	transform: rotate(-20deg);

Doing It Image-Free

Now, I have some extra stuff in here because the design called for this very subtle inner border. If you don’t like or need the inner border, just remove the bit about background image and background size and design will hold up fine.

Browser Support

This works as-is in IE 9+, Firefox 4.0+, Safari 4.1+ and Chrome 3.0+. IE 8 and below do not support background-size, and Chrome 1.0, Firefox 3.6 and Safari 3.0 will require some vendor prefixes. IE8 does support pseudo elements, however doesn’t support transform.

The fallback would be a colored square. Very likely not a huge problem.


There You Have It

It’s a price star thing. Flexible enough to grow when you increase your font size. Made with some CSS. You can use this for highlighting prices, discounts etc.

That’s it!

I hope you enjoyed this article and if you have questions, comments, or suggestions, let me know! Thanks for reading.

Posted by: Dhiraj kumar

jQuery Plugin for Cartoon-like Background Image Sprite Animation – AniDG – (alernative to animated Gif)

What is AniDg?

AniDg is a simple plugin for jQuery which allows you animate background images. The plugin is basically an alternative to the animated GIF but with several benefits. At first, it’s always better to use an animated GIF as this format is supported by all browsers without any JavaScript code or additional markup, but the “dark side” of it is that an animated GIF allows only 256 colors and you cannot control animation in any way. The AniDg loads a long vertical image and changes its background position with the speed you setup, giving you more control of the animation. For Better quality you can call PNG, JPG, GIF images in background image sprite as per your requirements.


jQuery Plugin AniDG Background image animation


  1. Light-weight script (Only 1Kb :))
  2. Easy to integrate
  3. Fully customizable via CSS
  4. Works with all modern browsers 🙂

How to Use


Simply place the following code anywhere inside thetag of your webpage:

<script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>


STEP ONE: Download or The package already contains all files used in this demo.

STEP TWO: Unzip and place the file jquery-ani.dg.min.js in the same location as the webpage that is displaying the animation. (Make sure paths to files are correct.)

STEP THREE: include the following code in the <head>…</head> section of your webpage:

<script type="text/javascript" src=""></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="jquery-ani.dg.min.js"></script>

3.) Add a style containing the url to your background with animation (this may be added to a separate CSS document or inside the <head>…</head> tag):

<style type="text/css">
#animation-1 {
background: url(images/sample-animation.gif) no-repeat left top;

4.) Add an empty DIV which will display animation in your document:

<div id="animation-1"></div>

5.) Add the following code to your <head>…</head> tag to initialize AniDg and start the animation.

<script type="text/javascript">
$('#animation-1').anidg({ frameWidth: 100, frameHeight: 100, speed: 100, totalFrames: 19 });

That’s it 😉 Click the Demo button to see it in action.

Public Functions
Start playing animation.

Pause animation.

Stop animation.


The table below contains a list of parameters accepted by the .anidg() function.

Parameters Description
frameWidth Width of a single frame.
frameHeight Height of a single frame.
speed Animation speed.
totalFrames Total frames in the animation.
loop Loop an animation or not. By default, value is true.

Posted by: Dhiraj kumar

7 tips to organize your CSS

Working often with CSS for my own website or for my job makes me trying always to be organized and that made me thinking about a thing. What is the best way to organize my CSS file(s)? With this article I will try to present you a short guide about CSS organizing.


1. Group your CSS files into a folder

Beside your main CSS file you may want to use also a print CSS file or why not a CSS file for the IE6/7 browser. Placing them together in a folder named css for example will help you improve your website back-end structure.


2. Use efficient selectors

A very important thing for you to know is how browsers understand and read your CSS selectors? The answer is that they read them from right to left. That means that for the selector ul li a span the first thing thing interpreted is span.


The id is the selector with the greater specificity so always, instead div#header you should use just #header. This way your file will be less redundant and smaller. Also note that the use of efficient CSS selectors is a nowadays requirement.

3. Comment and separate your CSS rules

Generally, a CSS file contains reset styles, header, content and footer styles and in order to easier browse your CSS rules you should choose a way to separate them.


You can choose an simple and easy to notice separator as in the following example:

  /* Header styles */
  /* ---------------------------------- */
  /* Content styles */
  /* ---------------------------------- */
  /* Footer styles */

4. Create a simple color scheme to use for your styles

When you are dealing for example with a CSS file for an web application you will use a lot common styles and colors.  So placing something as following inside a CSS comment could be very helpful for you:

  /* Colors: Light Gray #eaeaea, Dark Gray #828282, Red #c60000 */

5. Use a meaning naming convention for your selectors.

Let’s suppose you need to name your logo, menu and a tagline that are placed inside a header id wrapper. A good approach in this way would be to use namings as:

  • header-logo or h-logo
  • header-menu or h-menu
  • header-tag or h-tag


6. Create your own small CSS framework

By doing that you will be able to use these common CSS classes at any time for any elements from your markup.

  width: 100% !important;

  width: 1% !important;
  white-space: nowrap !important;

  text-align: center !important;

  margin-left: auto !important;
  margin-right: auto !important;

7. Simple is better

Don’t try to complicate things because simplicity will save you time, effort and why not your remaining hair 🙂

Posted by: Dhiraj kumar